Masculinity Ideologies Scale: Development and Validation for Pakistani Context



Current study targeted to develop a psychometrically sound scale for measuring masculinity ideologies in a Pakistani culture. The scale development proceeded in three phases. At first, generation of item pool was done based on a qualitative study that explored about indigenous masculinity ideologies. Then factor structure was explored using EFA where Principal Axis Factoring was utilized with Promax rotation. For this purpose 421 participants (Men = 268, Women = 173) were recruited with age range of 19 to 51 years, through convenience sampling. A four factors structure was yielded that comprised of 31 items explaining 48.70 % variance. The final step involved performing the confirmatory factor analysis on the items finalized in the previous phase using an independent sample. This sample (Men = 219, Women = 133) ranged in age from 20 to 44 years. Alpha reliability coefficients for the four factors came out to be .89 (male privilege), .86 (roles and responsibilities), .90 (avoiding effeminacy), & .72 (restricted emotionality). Convergent validity was established by associating the scale with Gender Role Attitude Scale (Kamal & Saqib, 2004).